BRIDGE : ITS PRINCIPLES AND RULES OF PLAY J.B. ELWELL

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Published: January 4th 2012

Kindle Edition

146 pages


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BRIDGE : ITS PRINCIPLES AND RULES OF PLAY  by  J.B. ELWELL

BRIDGE : ITS PRINCIPLES AND RULES OF PLAY by J.B. ELWELL
January 4th 2012 | Kindle Edition | PDF, EPUB, FB2, DjVu, AUDIO, mp3, RTF | 146 pages | ISBN: | 6.52 Mb

Bridge is a member of the family of trick-taking games and is a development of Whist, which had become the dominant such game enjoying a loyal following for centuries. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, Bridge is the English pronunciation ofMoreBridge is a member of the family of trick-taking games and is a development of Whist, which had become the dominant such game enjoying a loyal following for centuries.

According to the Oxford English Dictionary, Bridge is the English pronunciation of a game called Biritch, which was also known as Russian Whist.The oldest known Biritch rule book dated 1886 is by John Collinson. It and his subsequent letter to The Saturday Review dated May 28, 1906, document the origin of Biritch as from the Russian community in Constantinople and having some features in common with Solo Whist. The game had many significant bridge-like developments: dealer chose the trump suit, or nominated his partner to do so- there was a call of notrumps (biritch)- dealers partners hand became dummy- points were scored above and below the line- game was 3NT, 4H and 5D (although 8 club odd tricks and 15 spade odd tricks were needed)- the score could be doubled and redoubled- and there were slam bonuses.

This game, and variants of it known as bridge and bridge-whist, became popular in the United States and the UK in the 1890s despite the long-established dominance of whist.In 1904 auction bridge was developed, in which the players bid in a competitive auction to decide the contract and declarer. The object became to make at least as many tricks as were contracted for and penalties were introduced for failing to do so.The modern game of contract bridge was the result of innovations to the scoring of auction bridge made by Harold Stirling Vanderbilt and others.

The most significant change was that only the tricks contracted for were scored below the line toward game or a slam bonus, a change that resulted in bidding becoming much more challenging and interesting. Also new was the concept of vulnerability, making sacrifices to protect the lead in a rubber more expensive, and the various scores were adjusted to produce a more balanced game.

Vanderbilt set out his rules in 1925, and within a few years contract bridge had so supplanted other forms of the game that bridge became synonymous with contract bridge.In the USA, most of the bridge played today is duplicate bridge, which is played at clubs, in tournaments and online. In the UK, rubber bridge is still popular in both homes and clubs, as is duplicate bridge. It has been noted that the popularity of contract bridge has waned in recent years for a variety of reasons.



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